Use References in Oxford StyleFootnotes and referencing are some of the most commonly faced problems in academic life when students are working on their dissertations, essays, and assignments. Even if they have done a fabulous job on their research paper, all the ideas are in order and they have used the best sources, all is wasted if they fail to accurately and correctly reference their work in the recommended style.

According to a dissertation writing service, Oxford is a citation style that uses footnotes that the bottom of the page instead of using them in the in-text citation style that is followed by Harvard and APA. One of the unique and distinctive styles for referencing, the oxford style uses a superscript number inserted in the point in the essay where you can cite an author’s work and it sits slightly above the line of the text. The superscript numbers are placed at the end of a sentence and follow any punctuation marks. At the bottom of the same page, the superscript number is repeated along with the full details that include the page number of the author’s work that is being cited.

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Students are recommended to start their footnote number at number 1 and continue with the sequence in order till they reach the end. It is also important to remember here that if you are citing a particular author’s work in the paper repeated, it is enough to provide the complete details of the work in the first footnote and you do not need to repeat the entire details again and again till you reach the end. In the later footnotes, what you can do is use the shortened format of the author’s surname, abbreviated title, and the page number.

Footnote Example:

… was by no means the first to make this classical connection. As Dr. Peter Londey says of Bean he
‘turned for inspiration to the new, young radical democracy of Athens in the fifth century BC’.1 Yet an
early report of the Gallipoli landing indicated that the strain of the battle caused discipline to break
down and for many soldiers to ‘lose they way’.In the intervening years public opinion has oscillated
between these two points of view, remaining steadfastly ‘pro ANZAC’ until the end of the 1950s,3 then
anti-war during the 1960s and 1970s, ‘settling in the last decade to somewhere in the middleground’.4


P. Londey, ‘A Possession Forever: Charles Bean, the Ancient Greeks, and Military Commemoration
in Australia’, 
Australian Journal of Politics and History, vol. 53, no. 3, 2007, p. 345.
M. Lake and H. Reynolds, 
What’s Wrong with ANZAC?: The Militisation of Australian History, Sydney, University of New South Wales Press, 2010, p. 8.
Londey, ‘A Possession Forever’, p. 352.
Lake and Reynolds, 
What’s Wrong with ANZAC?, p. 38.

Reference List:

The reference list should be placed on a separate page at the end of the paper and must be titled so. This list should carry all the details of the footnotes that have been used in the paper and arranged in alphabetic order, from A to Z according to the authors’ surnames. in most cases, the terms bibliography and reference list are interchangeable but it is important to note that reference list only includes the items that have been referenced in the paper while bibliography can also include items that were used for preparing the paper. It is best to consult the guidelines provided by the teacher to know which one would work.

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Quotation In The Oxford Style:

Direct quotes that are less than 30 words can be included in the body of the paper; they should remain enclosed in single inverted commas and followed by a superscript number that refers to a footnote at the bottom of the page. If the quotation is longer than 30 words, the superscript number should be placed at the end of the quotation. The best way to do this is to cite a document from a website instead of a whole website in the paper. On the other hand, if you are using a secondary quote, a quote from a book or article that uses another author’s work, mention the details of both these works in the footnote.

10 R. Ago, Gusto for Things, Chicago, Chicago University Press, 2013, cited in D. Biow, On the Importance of Being an Individual in Renaissance Italy, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, p. 220.

Before using the references in the oxford style, you must learn what it is all about and how to use it the right way. Only with proper knowledge and understanding will you be able to reference the document correctly and earn desired results.